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Transplanting old grapes to a new location every summer is not a necessary measure. More often in this way they try to correct mistakes made during the initial planting. And here, inexperienced gardeners must do everything right so as not to aggravate the situation.
Why transplant grapes?
The root of the problem is often hidden in an unsuccessful choice of a site for a future vine, but in general the reasons for transplanting can be described as follows:
- little light, draft, poor soil;
- the bushes are planted too densely;
- the presence of neighbors depressing the vine;
- planned transfer of seedlings to another part of the site.
Before the start of the relocation of grapes, it is necessary to once again weigh the pros and cons. As counterarguments, the following are taken into account: injured (lost part of the root system) bushes often die, the taste of the berries will change, the first 2-3 years after transplantation, fruiting is not guaranteed, the seedlings become susceptible to disease.
When is the best time to replant grapes to a new location?
For the successful procedure, there are certain rules, the implementation of which will minimize the harm from the transplant.
This is the term for the implementation of the event, the possession of information when it is better to transplant the bushes, as well as taking care of the safety of the seedling and its roots.
It is not recommended to plant a new stem where the grapes have already grown (and been uprooted): the soil there is poor, the presence of pathogens is possible. The optimal time for transplanting is in early spring or late autumn, when the plant is in relative dormancy, does not develop. According to another rule, a bush no older than 5 years has more chances to take root. Damage to the root system is highly undesirable: therefore, grapes with an earthy clod are dug up and transferred.
The top (vine) will need to be trimmed to maintain balance with the bottom. Before transplanting, they prepare the future place of residence: they dig up, fertilize, clear of weeds and pests.
Features of the root system of grapes
The development of the lower, hidden underground, part of a seedling and an adult plant depends on the characteristics of the variety, its age, nutrition, and the location of aquifers. There are 2 stages of root growth: until about mid-summer (July) and from autumn (September), until falling asleep. When the earth warms up to 17-21 ° С (third decade of June), the rate of formation of the root system reaches its apogee. Roots begin to grow before the buds hatch (or at the beginning of the process).
Further, the growing season, the formation of foliage is accompanied by the simultaneous strengthening of the underground part, branching of roots. If the plant has enough moisture, microelements in the soil, then in September the second stage of growth begins, which ends when the temperature of the root layers drops to 8 ° C.
Drought significantly affects the development of grapes: in this case, root growth is limited to one stage. The main factor that restrains and determines the development of the lower part of the plant is moisture. This is the difference between the grapes grown in the Moscow region and Rostov: in the first case, the seedling will grow, gradually slowing down, until the end of September, due to the higher soil moisture. How exactly the root system will be located, its type, depends on the variety and growing conditions.
Generally, there are 2 types:
In the first case, the roots are short, but branched, extended along the aquifers. In the second, they are long and less developed to the sides, sometimes reaching 3.5 meters (Cabernet and Sauvignon varieties in Crimea). In profile, the system has 1, 2 and 3 maximums: each of them is tied to specific growing conditions.
We take into account the age of the shrub
Age up to 5 years is considered the most favorable for the growth of the root system. In the first year of life, the soil, as well as the quality of caring for the bush, affect the characteristics of its root system. Chubuk has 3 types of roots: with a depth of up to 15 centimeters (dew), medium (sometimes in several tiers) and calcaneal (deepest).
In turn, zones of active development, absorption and conduction are distinguished in the cortex. Each of them has its own specific functions responsible for the overall growth of the seedling. Next, we will consider the features of the transplant associated with the age of the shrub. Young grapes, which are no more than 5-6 years old, tolerate moving to a new place of residence well, have a relatively undeveloped root system (the risk of damage is minimal). It should be borne in mind that in practice the "safe" time period is reduced to 3-4 years, but first things first.
In an adult or old (10 years old and above), the underground part extends inward and outward, it is more difficult to dig it out completely. In the first year, it is better not to touch the plant - to let it grow and gain strength. Two-year-olds have more vitality, but at the same time, more branched root shoots. A circle with a radius of 30 centimeters is marked around the stem - this will be the digging zone. The depth is up to 60 centimeters, and the upper part is trimmed to leave 2-3 eyes.
The chances of survival of a two-year-old seedling in a new place are quite high.
Grapes aged 3 years in the underground part reach almost 1 meter, about the same size of its spread to the sides. Such bushes dig in 50 centimeters around and 70-80 in depth. When a plant is planted, pruning is carried out, leaving no more than 4 eyes.
With each next year of life, the task becomes more complicated: for example, transplanting 4-5-year-old shanks without damaging the roots is impossible - they diverge deeply and in breadth, concentrating in a 60-centimeter zone. Therefore, you need to capture as much of the earthen coma as possible, digging in 0.5 meters to the sides. The eyes are thinned to 5-6. After 6 years, a critical period of development begins: for the shrub itself, there is nothing wrong with this, but the transplant is meaningless.
The same applies to those 20 and older. To renew the plant, gentle, but very long-term methods of gradual "transfer" of the plant are used, using its natural rooting ability.
According to the method of cutting a long lateral vine, the shoot is buried in the ground. Gradually (sometimes up to a year), the stepson takes root, but the connection with the mother plant remains. After a couple of years, the layers are separated from the bush, and the old plant is thrown away.
The katavlak method consists in finding the heel root: it will become the basis for a rejuvenated bush. Old grapes are pruned to the maximum, leaving a few vines. Then they are dropped in, and after 1-2 years fruiting begins. Such methods allow you to move the shank over short distances without using a transplant, and at the same time increase its ability to survive, update it.
What seedlings can be transplanted?
There are no obvious restrictions on the choice of grapes for transplanting in terms of variety, size, except for age. Starting from 2 years of age and ending with 5 years, all seedlings, provided that an earthen coma with roots is preserved, normally take root.
There is a practical way to preserve the root system of the "old" (not too strongly planted in the soil) grapes:
- The bush is evenly and neatly dug in until it reaches the heel.
- The resulting pit is poured abundantly with water, until a thick sour cream consistency is formed.
- After 3-4 hours, when the root system is "wet", it is relatively easy to remove it from the mud mixture with minimal damage.
The method requires extremely careful handling of the roots - you will have to separate them from the wet earth with your hands, but as a result, you get a seedling ready for transplantation. The chances of survival for a bush treated in this way are much higher than that of a soil dug out with a lump.
How do I choose a new location?
Grapes love warmth and light, and are finicky in choosing their neighbors - these subtleties require attention when it comes to choosing a place for transplanting. Drafts are unacceptable, and moisture stagnation is also not encouraged. South sides are preferred over others; trees that in the future will cast a shadow on the bushes are excluded. Aquifers should not lie too close to the surface, saline, swampy soils are not suitable.
The presence of stems, vines, leaves in the compost for fertilizing seedlings is also undesirable: carriers of diseases could remain on them. It is better to burn this waste, and use the resulting ash for feeding.
The preparation of the hole for planting deserves a separate discussion; this is done in 30 days (or even earlier). When preparing a hole for a bush, take into account the following:
- size matters - the older the grapes, the more (and deeper) we dig;
- for sandy mixtures, they are limited to a parameter of 60 centimeters, for loamy soils - 80;
- in the northern and cold regions "add" depth to protect delicate roots from freezing;
- the minimum planting step is chosen from 2 to 3 meters, taking into account the varietal characteristics;
- a mixture consisting of earth, superphosphate and ammonium sulfate with ash (replaced with humus) is poured onto the bottom.
Sometimes it is advised to "feed" the bush with iron, using empty cans, nails and unnecessary metal parts. They must first be burned in a fire, then added to the hole with the seedling.
Popular transplantation methods
The main task of transplanting is to keep the root system of the bush intact and safe, to provide it with normal living conditions in a new place (light, heat, moisture) and to get an improved yield of berries as a result.
There are 3 known transplant methods:
- Transfer (full lump of soil on the roots).
- With a partial lump.
- With peeled roots.
The first method is the most humane and effective: there is a painless transfer of the plant from one place to another, the lower part is not injured. For bushes older than 3 years, this technique is inapplicable: a clod of earth becomes huge and overwhelming.
Preparing grapes for transplanting by transshipment includes stopping watering (3-4 days), cutting off the upper part (up to 2-3 buds) with processing the cuts with garden pitch. Next, carefully dig in the shank around, retreating 50-60 centimeters. Breakage of individual (longest) roots is allowed. The lump removed from the hole is transported to a new place, lowered into the hole, leveled, poured in earth and lightly tamped. Pour about 20-25 liters (2 buckets) of water, create a layer of mulch (compost, peat) 10 centimeters thick.
The following 2 techniques are applicable if the lump could not be preserved during the extraction (carrying) process. You can also deliberately strip the roots by flooding the vine one day before transplanting. Then they dig in the bush (half a meter in all directions), working with a small spatula or a ripper with a narrow blade. It is necessary to damage the rhizome as little as possible, freeing it from the earth.
Regardless of its condition, after being removed from the hole, the injured thick, as well as thin (up to 20 millimeters thick) sections are trimmed with pruning shears, the dews are removed completely. Next, a nutrient solution is prepared from 2 parts of clay and 1 part of cow dung, stirring it until it is uniform. Then the bush is lowered there.
Impregnation with such a talker has 2 goals: disinfection and destruction of fungal pathogens. The vine is truncated in proportion to the state of the root system, for significant damage and plants aged 10 years or more, pruning is done "on a black head" (below ground level, completely remove the entire top). Excessive "pity" in this case can only harm: short-cut stems coated with garden varnish will release new shoots, and untreated ones will wither.
How to transplant grapes correctly in summer?
Transplanting a shrub in the summer is considered a forced (and undesirable) measure. But if you know how to properly transplant grapes to another site and scrupulously fulfill all the requirements, then you can try. The choice of location is very important: not in the shade, on the south side of the vegetable garden or garden, without tall neighbors nearby. The transfer is carried out in compliance with the main stages: digging in the shank around, cleaning the roots and preserving a clod of earth.
There are 2 methods of transplantation:
- You will need a steel or galvanized sheet 500 millimeters wide, wire and 2 shovels. It is advisable to carry out the process with an assistant. The metal is rolled into a pipe, the edges are fixed with coils of wire. The layer of soil is carefully removed until the first roots appear. Next, it is necessary, having installed the pipe from above, evenly dig in it along the envelope. You should get a circular trench half a meter deep. Then they begin to deepen, trying to reach the root system (50-60 centimeters from the surface). The resulting "cylinder" from the soil and the lower part of the bush will need to be carefully lifted using shovels as levers (preferably shovels). Then it remains to transfer it to a new site and lower it into a previously prepared hole.
- The second method is quite simple: for its implementation you will need a shovel, humus, potassium permanganate, clay. They start with the preparation of the future "place of residence". Poor soil is fed using mineral fertilizers or natural fertilizers (manure). The seedling, carefully removed from the old site, is kept in a mixture of clay and potassium permanganate (at the same time, this helps to preserve it if the new site is far away). The upper part is cut off before planting, leaving a minimum of buds. They are planted, as usual, watered and do not allow liquid stagnation.
After planting in a new place, the grapes need care: light, watering, protection from pests.Sometimes it is useful to create a drainage system: for this, before planting the seedling, rubble is poured into the bottom of the pit, and next to the future bush, a pipe section is strengthened through which nutrients will flow directly to the roots of the plant. Pruning the upper part depends on the condition of the lower one: sometimes it is useful to completely remove the vines and shoots "on a black head", to rejuvenate the bush.