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Description and characteristics of the Semerenko apple variety, the benefits and harms and features of cultivation

Description and characteristics of the Semerenko apple variety, the benefits and harms and features of cultivation


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The benefits of green apples for the human body have long been known. But not all varieties are tasty, often the dense structure of the fruits, the high acid content in them does not allow you to feast on them. But nobody has refused Semerenko's apples yet. They are included in the diet of young children and the elderly, especially since the fruits are winter species. The variety is unpretentious, and you can cultivate it in a summer cottage.

Semerenko apple-tree fruits

Semerenko apples appeared a long time ago, therefore they gained popularity among consumers. They are appreciated for their taste, pleasant pulp structure. They have many benefits for all categories of the population.

History of the origin of the variety

It is believed that the apple variety appeared in the 19th century, but it was described a little later - in the middle of the 20th century by the son of the selection author Platon Semerenko. After that, the culture was included in the State Register of Fruit Crops. The history of the appearance of the apple tree is vague. Most likely, the biologist Semerenko conducted experiments with pollination of known varieties and received a wonderful apple tree.

Another name for the variety is Renet Platon Semerenko. Although the surname is being altered in the manner of Simirenko or Semirenko.

General description of the variety

The apple tree is a spreading tree with:

  • a dense crown in the form of an inverted cauldron;
  • straight shoots;
  • trunk wood from dark gray to dark brown color;
  • oval leaves, in which the tip is elongated and curly;
  • saucer-shaped white flowers;
  • green fruits.

The height of the tree usually reaches 2-3 meters. And the color of the bark changes depending on the illumination of the sun.

Fruit characteristics

The main value of horticultural crops are fruits. The choice of varieties for planting and growing depends on their quality. In the Semerenko apple tree, the fruits are different:

  • light green color of smooth skin;
  • subcutaneous points of a light tone;
  • the pulp is juicy and tender;
  • sweet taste with a small amount of acid;
  • weighing from 150 to 200 grams.

As the fruits are stored in winter, they turn yellow, and the taste becomes richer.

Yield

The apple tree begins to bear fruit in the 4-5th year of life. Apple yields increase as the tree matures, gradually reaching 100 kilograms per plant. But after 15 years of fruiting, the yield begins to decline.

Taste qualities

Apples contain up to 12% sugar. The amount of acid is 0.4-0.7%. The pulp is firm and juicy, and due to the presence of sugars, sweet, gives off wine aromas. The taste of the fruit lasts a long time, but the flesh becomes looser.

Calorie content

Most of all in the composition of apples carbohydrates. For those who are losing weight, it is useful to know that one apple contains no more than 44-37 calories.

Benefit and harm

To increase the amount of vitamins in winter and early spring, Semerenko apples are an irreplaceable product. Anyone who consumes green fruits constantly:

  • strengthens the heart;
  • normalizes the condition of blood vessels, thyroid gland;
  • improves appetite and digestive tract function;
  • strengthens the skeletal system;
  • protects itself from flu and colds.

But with caution, you should eat green fruits when the stomach is affected by gastritis, diabetes is diagnosed.... The acid in apples has a bad effect on the enamel of the teeth, making it more sensitive.

Varieties and rootstocks

Semerenko apple tree seedlings are often obtained on rootstocks. It is imperative to know their features in order to properly cultivate the culture.

Clonal or vigorous stock

This type of apple tree is suitable for large gardens. The tree will be distinguished by its durability, reaching a height of 7 meters. A feature is the average fertility of the culture. The tree will bear its first fruits only in the 6-7th year after planting.

Semi-dwarf

The smaller the tree, the faster it ages. Semi-dwarfs have enough life for 40 years, and the height is 4-5 meters. A subspecies of the variety is chosen by those who have small plots for a garden.

Dwarf

The stock has time to prepare for fruiting within 2-3 years. The tree is compact, reaching a height of 2-3 meters. The stock is valued for its unpretentiousness to care, growing conditions.

Columnar

The column-type apple tree looks even more compact. You can plant several copies at a distance of 50 centimeters from each other. And a 2-meter tree bears a lot of fruits in the first 10-12 years of life. But the subspecies is suitable only for gardeners in the southern regions, as it does not tolerate frost well.

Apple tree Renet

Created as a result of centuries of selection, the Renets are distinguished by a variety of varieties. The apple tree Semerenko is the same Renet, but created by a specific gardener. There are many other varieties with the same name. The Renette apple tree has round-shaped fruits with a slight flattening, and the flesh is dense. Apples are good for dessert as they contain more sugar than acid.

Similarities and differences

In addition to the appearance of apples and taste, the subspecies of the variety are similar in terms of ripening. They belong to the winter types of fruit crops. The only difference is in the growth of the tree, the splendor of the crown. Some species do not tolerate low temperatures well and have different immunity to diseases.

Rules for planting a fruit tree

For different varieties of apple trees, the timing and rules of planting are the same. Although there are nuances of the procedure. So for the Semerenko variety, the composition of the soil, the chosen place in the garden, is important.

Planting season

Depending on the climate, an apple tree is planted in autumn or spring. For regions with cold weather, spring is better - the period before bud break. In the southern regions, where winter comes later, it is autumn. It is necessary that the tree has time to get stronger, to get accustomed to frost. 3-4 weeks will be enough for him.

Sapling selection

For planting, a tree needs 1-2 years of life. The root system of the shoot must be free from damage, swelling. It contains 3-4 main roots with a network of suction roots. On the trunk, the bark is smooth, without tubercles and swellings. A one-year-old shoot may not have branches, a two-year-old one - 2-3 branches.

Tree planting site

The apple tree needs a sunny place, but protected from the effects of cold winds... If the groundwater is at a level of 1.5 meters from the surface, then it is better to plant a tree on a hill. The variety needs a nutritious and loose soil with a neutral acidity level

Preparatory work

A plot in the garden for seedlings is fertilized. Humus, mineral fertilizers are applied per square meter. Then it is carefully dug up. Work is carried out six months before planting. You can immediately prepare the pits for the apple trees. During this time, minerals are well absorbed by the soil.

Disembarkation actions

In each hole you need to add a bucket of humus, mineral fertilizers, after mixing them with the ground. A mound of fertile soil is poured at the bottom of a hole filled to 2 thirds. The prepared seedling is placed in the center, spreading the roots, and a peg is stuck next to it. Then they continue to fill in the soil, periodically shaking the shoot.

When the earth evenly settles between the roots, the trunk circle is pressed down with the soles of the feet. The root collar is left at ground level or slightly higher by 5-7 centimeters.

After planting, the tree needs abundant moisture and tying the trunk to a peg. The root circle is mulched with peat or humus.

Tree care

The fruit crops of the garden need careful care aimed at moisturizing and feeding the trees. The Semerenko apple tree that has entered fruiting requires the formation of a crown, periodic rejuvenation.

Irrigation

It is best to water the apple trees in the furrows 4-5 times per season. With prolonged drought, the frequency of watering is increased by pouring up to 10 buckets of water under each tree.

Fertilizer

When they begin to harvest apples from the trees, they must apply the main fertilizer of 3 kilograms of manure, 50 grams of superphosphate and 12 - potassium salt per square meter of the garden before the autumn digging. In the spring, ammonium nitrate is needed, which is applied in an amount of 12-15 grams per 1 square meter before loosening the soil.

Top dressing in the furrows is carried out with liquid mineral and organic fertilizers after flowering, during the period of fruit setting.

Growth and shoots

With the correct development of the apple tree, shoots appear annually. The growth reaches 50-60 centimeters when the tree is still young. It decreases in an adult plant to 45 centimeters. Shoots are covered with green-brown bark, with small and rare lenticels.

Pruning

In fruiting plantings, they are engaged in thinning the crown, cutting out whole branches that are sick, frozen, broken. It is necessary to cut off those shoots that hang or grow inside the crown. If the center of the crown remains in a thickened state, then it is possible to cut out underdeveloped branches.

Preparing trees for winter

For the winter, the Semerenko apple tree is sheltered where the frosts are most severe in winter. To do this, the trunk is wrapped with various materials in several layers. Young trees also need shelter in temperate climates. In winter, the trees are covered with snow.

Measures to increase yields

To increase apple yields, activities are carried out related to:

  • timely feeding of trees after flowering with nitrogen and potassium, as well as mullein in a ratio of 1: 5 or bird droppings - 1:12;
  • removal of obsolete and unproductive fruit twigs;
  • thinning the thickened crown;
  • by cutting wild growth on the rootstocks.

Only constant care of apple trees will lead to annual abundant fruiting.

Rejuvenation

When the tree begins to bear fruit poorly, and the ends of the skeletal branches begin to dry out, then it is necessary to carry out anti-aging pruning.... The skeletal branches of the 1st order are shortened by a third or half of the length to the place where good tops have grown.

Disease and pest control

The Semerenko variety has many advantages. Its only drawback is that it succumbs to diseases and pests. The gardener needs to be able to recognize the problem and fight the plant ailment in time.

Disease resistance

The apple tree has medium scab resistance. But other infections, under favorable conditions for them, develop successfully, ruining the tree and the crop.

Reasons for the lack of harvest

If the apple tree does not bear fruit, then the reason for this may be that it changes the frequency of fruiting. In a young tree, the first fruits will appear in the 4-5th year of life, and in vigorous rootstocks, even later by 3 years.

Fruiting is also hindered by the fact that:

  • there is not enough iron in the soil of the garden;
  • branches grow vertically;
  • there is a lot of growth;
  • the tree is sick or attacked by pests.

If the root collar is deeply buried when planting, then apple harvests can not be expected either.

Causes of slow tree growth

The growth of a tree will slow down if it does not adapt in time after planting. An improperly selected place, when groundwater lies close to the surface of the earth, leads to decay of the roots and a stop in the growth of the tree. Pests also negatively affect the development of fruit crops.

Reasons for the barren flower

Untimely falling of flowers without the formation of ovaries is due to the fact that during the flowering of the apple tree:

  • there were severe frosts;
  • no pollination occurred due to hot weather or heavy rainfall;
  • treated wood from pests or diseases.

You need to know that the first flowers do not always set fruit.

Fall of unripe fruits

It's a shame when the fruits set, but quickly fell off. The reason for this may be the weakening of the tree due to freezing in winter. He lacks the strength to ripen the fruit. The apples fall without forming, due to an attack on the tree by aphids or pathogenic fungi.

Pests

Harmful to the apple harvest of the moth. Caterpillars eat up the passages in apples, and they quickly rot. It is necessary to fight the pest by spraying with "Karbofos" 15-20 days after flowering.

Aphids are destroyed either with insecticidal preparations or by treatment with tobacco dust infusion. Spider mites are afraid of onion peel infusion.

Diseases

Rarely, but the Semerenko apple tree is sick with scab. The disease is recognized by the spots on the olive-colored leaves. The danger of infection is that it then infects the apples, which deform and rot. Powdery mildew and cytosporosis are common infections. It is necessary to carry out the prevention of diseases, which consists in pruning diseased shoots, treating wounds with garden pitch, whitewashing the trunk of trees.

Harvest: collection and storage

To get a harvest from the Semerenko apple tree, it is necessary to ensure pollination of the variety. To do this, Antonovka, Renet Chernenko, Granny Smith are planted nearby. If the pollination was successful during the flowering of the apple trees, then the fruits will tie and ripen. When the time comes to pick the apples, they are carefully removed from the fruit twigs.

Early maturity

The variety begins to bear fruit in the 4-5th year of life. Then yields harvests annually. But upon reaching the age of 25, the tree begins to produce apples periodically every 2 years. The harvest time comes in late September or early October.

Fruit storage

A feature of the Semerenko apple tree is that its fruits persist for 8-9 months. Moreover, their quality does not deteriorate. Before storage, apples are sorted, rejecting crumpled, damaged ones. No more than 15-20 kilograms of apples are put in a dry container. They are stored in a dark room at a temperature within + 1 ... + 2 degrees.

Winter hardiness

The tree does not tolerate low temperatures. Therefore, it is not suitable for growing in regions with temperate and cold climates. Apples will not have time to ripen in a short summer with sudden temperature changes.

Regional features of cultivation

The Semerenko apple tree is cultivated in the southern regions of Russia, in Ukraine. You can grow it in the Central Black Earth regions. In the Urals, in Siberia, the middle lane, the tree will freeze regularly, losing part of its crown. Therefore, it makes no sense to plant a culture here.


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