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On the sites of domestic gardeners, grape bushes are quite common. The fruits of this culture have a universal purpose, wine and juice are prepared from berries, added to marinades, compotes are boiled and frozen for the winter. Before deciding on a suitable variety, you need to study its description and characteristics. One of the advantages of Russian Concord grapes is its high winter hardiness, which allows it to be cultivated in cold regions.
The "parent" of the domestic variety is the American Concorde. Scientists crossed it with the Amur species, thanks to which the variety has a high frost resistance, thanks to which grapes can be grown in the middle lane and northern regions. The American variety has endowed the new variety with a pleasant taste.
The first seedlings of the Russian Concord were bred by breeders in 1947, since then the variety has become widespread throughout the CIS and, despite the emergence of new hybrids, continues to be popular and give rich yields.
Description of the variety Russian Concord
The Russian Concord grape belongs to the isable varieties and is planted by gardeners and farmers in both southern and northern regions. Description and characteristics of the plant:
- The leaves of the vine are three-lobed, rounded, large in size. The color of the plates is rich green, and on the lower surface of the leaf there is a pubescence resembling a white cobweb.
- The flowers are of the female type, so pollinators must be planted nearby.
- The bunch is medium in size, cylindrical in shape, when fully formed has an average density.
- The berries are round in shape, rather large, have a dark red color with a slight purple tint. The skin of the fruit is of medium density, and the pulp is juicy and fleshy.
- The ripening period is 128 days from the beginning of bud break.
- The average yield is 75 centners per hectare.
Pros and cons of grapes
For many years of cultivation of the Russian Concord variety, gardeners have highlighted its advantages and disadvantages.
High frost resistance to cold and fungal diseases.
Unpretentiousness to the place of cultivation.
Good yield with proper agrotechnical care.
Long shelf life without loss of taste.
Berries tend to crack in rainy summers.
Great vigor of vines growth.
The subtleties of growing a culture
In order for the grapes of the Russian Concord variety to show all the characteristics declared by the breeders, it is necessary to properly prepare a place for it and take a responsible attitude to the acquisition of seedlings.
Dates and place
It is allowed to plant young seedlings of the Russian Concord variety both in spring and early autumn. If winter comes early in the growing region, it is better to carry out planting work in spring, then the vine will have time to fully take root and will not freeze over the winter.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
The vine of this variety does not tolerate through winds, so the south side of the buildings will be an ideal place for cultivation. The culture bears fruit well on light and fertile lands.
If the soil at the site of the proposed planting is poor, nutrients are added and the site is dug up a few weeks before the start of work.
Pits 100 by 100 cm in size are dug a week before the expected disembarkation. The distance between the holes is 2 meters. At the bottom of each hole or trench, a drainage layer is first laid. Broken brick, crushed dry brushwood or fine gravel are used as drainage material. This is necessary so that the water does not stagnate at the roots of the grapes after rain.
Fertile soil mixed with mineral fertilizers is poured onto the drainage layer, and a seedling is installed, spreading the roots in different directions. After that, they are covered with the remnants of the earth and lightly tamped. Water the seedling abundantly and lay a layer of organic mulch.
In this case, you will not have to deal with weeds, and the organic material, decomposing, will feed the roots of the grapes.
The subtleties of plant care
Not only the amount of the harvested crop depends on the quality of plant care, but also the health of the grapes. Vines need timely shaping, irrigation and nutritional components. It is also important to periodically carry out preventive treatments - the variety, although resistant to damage by fungal microorganisms, can be affected by diseases and insect pests in the absence of care.
Bush formation and pruning
Experienced gardeners recommend pruning the plant in the fall, before the vines are sheltered from frost. Starting from the second year of cultivation, they begin to form a bush. All branches are cut into two buds, thus forming sleeves. On the 3rd year, the second order sleeves are formed.
Before winter, remove all dry, diseased and weak shoots that still will not survive the cold.
Watering and feeding
Irrigate the vine as the soil dries up. Regular watering in the first year after planting the crop is especially important. In hot and sunny weather, each bush is moistened once a week, pouring a 10-liter bucket of water under each. In the event that it rains, they refuse irrigation, since excess moisture will cause the development of fungal diseases.
If, when planting a culture in a hole or a trench, enough fertilizer was applied, then the plant will need feeding only after a year of cultivation. For this, both organic compounds and fats with mineral components are used. For the first time, top dressing is applied in the spring using formulations with nitrogen. Re-fertilization is used at the stage of fruit formation, at which time the plant needs potassium and phosphorus.
Protection against diseases and pests
Despite the persistent immunity of the variety to fungal diseases, experienced gardeners recommend carrying out preventive treatments twice a season using fungicidal preparations. So that the pests do not destroy the grapes, weeds are weeded on the site in time, and when the first signs of an insect infestation appear, acaricidal compositions are used.
Harvesting and storage of crops
The grape harvest begins in late August or early September, depending on the region of cultivation. You can store berries in the refrigerator, in sealed plastic containers for 3 weeks, or in a cool cellar. However, most gardeners use the fruit to make wine or juice.